Thursday, March 5, 2020
Work Ethic Essay Sample Essay on Work Ethic Work ethics is believed to be an idea that work, hard work and diligence, has a positive outcome. They also believe that a person should prioritize work and work only in order to live a successful life. Some may disagree on this but there are people who really make their lives revolve around working. Being a workaholic is not bad but on some point, this trait can become a problem because too much work can lead to sickness. It is okay to work as long as you take good care of yourself. A strong work ethic is needed in order to survive a life that is centered in doing your job. The following are the top ten work ethics. When you enter a job the first impressive move you will take is being always on time and never be absent. Attendance is one of the most important factors when an employer looks for an employee. When a person is late many things are wasted and it is not good for the business. You will never find a boss who wants his or her employee to be always late. This will impress and inspire your co-workers and your boss. Every company believes in the saying that the early bird catches the worm so an early employee will be the most productive. The second one is the character of an employee. The character of a person is important in the workplace because it will determine his or her connection with his colleagues. It is so important that a person has a good attitude so that he can get along with his co-workers and the job will be done easily. The third one is team work; this is applicable to an individual or a group of people. Team work is definitely needed because some job requires coordination b etween more people. It will also show how a person will communicate to the other to finish a certain task. The fourth quality is the appearance; sometimes looks really matters. If you will notice, some job posts include pleasing personality as a requirement. People in the business world needs people who are presentable looking in order to persuade the clients and convince them that their company has real business because their employees look presentable enough to be believed. It does not necessarily mean that the person should pass the standard of beautiful; he or she just needs to be presentable. Next one is an attitude, just like character it shows how a person acts towards the others. Tough times will also test someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude on how he or she will react in a problem. The sixth quality is productivity; it is something that makes an employer keeps his or her employee. A productive person always gets the job done even before the deadline. The kinds of people who are productive are good for the company because the salary given to them are all worth it. The other qualities include organizational skills, communication, cooperation, and respect. Organizational skills are needed because it will make a person do his or her job in the easiest way possible. Communication is needed in any field of the workplace because this is what makes people understand each other. If an employee does not know how to communicate, he or she will not be able to impart his or her ideas and that may cause the company a big loss. Cooperation is important because when an employee is not cooperat ing the job will not be done. Last but not the least is a respect for each other. Without respect, the job will not be done successfully. Everybody should respect each other regardless of their race, age, gender, and religion. Respect should be given and not demanded because it is something that is offered to a person without anything in return. All of the mentioned qualities should be exhibited by a person who wants to work with strong ethics. If a person has all of those qualities, he or she will surely stay in the job he or she loves. The drive of a person to make something successful will make him or her goals come true. The strong work ethics is nothing without hard work and patience in doing the job.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The Future of the Music Industry - Assignment Example While the business spent numerous years opposing the rise of the internet as a supply and promotion technique for music, it was ultimately forced to identify it. The labels finally accredited music to iTunes and Apple (in addition to some other stores). It took them so long to make out that people needed DRM-free music; however, theyve lastly come around to identify that too. Anybody intrigue to predict the future of music sees different facets and factors. One of the main factors that can control music drifts are the musicians that create music (Hannan, 2001). The future music will probably be considerably diverse from the music we are at present used to. Artists disclose future drifts in this business since their individual tastes in addition to preferences are usually the main cause of most drifts that happen inside this industry. Customers inside this industry also portray drifts too though. Pakistani music with most recent leanings in the 21st century revitalized itself to be admired sound all through the world and region (Hannan, 2001). Through assessing the individual likes as well as dislikes of artists as they make their music and the fragile preferences of customers as they get their music, we can widen a moderately clear picture of what the viewpoint of the business will be. The only technique we can exactly predict the prospect of this industry is by joining deliberation of both customers and artists (Lankford, 2013). By assessing the predilections of both patrons, as well as artists, we can get an unambiguous picture of how the two noteworthy variables will influence future drifts. Modern musicians are focusing on scientifically sophisticated musical tools to produce their art, and the public is at present focusing on more scientifically sophisticated tools to access their music. By simply assessing the tendencies that musicians are taking, we can effortlessly
Monday, February 3, 2020
Antiwar Movement in America - Essay Example One of the main reasons behind the failure of America in the war lied at the ground level- where troops were, right there in Vietnam. The American soldiers slowly saw the futility of what they were doing. It was also heart rendering to see the middle class in Vietnam coming forward against the war. And, of course Americans underestimated the strength of soviet backed Vietnam army named as National Liberation Front. Back home, the anti war movements were more hype than substance when analyzed from the perspective of actually stopping the war. There was lack of unity between whites and blacks. Blacks weren't given equal rights at home and they in patches found it illogical to be fighting for the cause of a nation which hadn't been fair to them. One of the many confirmations of this fact came from an SNCC worker who said that "black people don't understand the warit's very far away and the trouble they see is right there in the courthouse."1 Infact, most blacks considered opting out of the anti war movements as they saw an ally in Lyndon Johnson as a support for their civil right movement. The whole scenario can be simplified like this- of those who were informed about the war, most people hated it, but for some reason or the other they couldn't afford to completely go against Johnson. There was often an ugly mix up between the issue of civil war and the protests against Vietnam. Organizations like NAACP tried to make the distinction but it wasn't always possible. In fact that very organization was accused to be too friendly to the administration time to time. American society itself was dealing with issues of internal conflict, thereby not giving full attention to something that was apparently outside their control- the war. Though powerful leadership given by likes of Martin Luther King played a big role but there were always problems with regards to unity between the black and white protestors. The movement was never pan American at any point of time. There were times to really low turn outs at places making the whole show a big embarrassment. Moreover, the media which play such a major role in portraying the image of everything wasn't always kind to the anti war protestors especially labeling the radical protestors as freaks.2 The conscious approach of using the method of approaching multiple issues back fired as it meant that any organization lacked direction and they just ended up getting entangled in other affairs, as a result, going no where. What the protests did succeed in doing was to create an atmosphere of anti-imperialism which may have played in role in Americans not interfering in issues of Angola a few years following the end of the war. In many ways the American response to Vietnam was a result of an exaggerated reaction against the spread of communism, fuelled mainly by fear and insecurity felt only by those in power. In a way, it wasn't considered a bad thing to be feeling that ways because it would mean that one tends to hold an important position, no matter how irrational this sounds. The people on the other hand tended to be more logical in their thinking. But there was an
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Study On The Definition Of Evidence Based Practice I have studied Nursing for 4 years in the Philippines and I have not encounter the term Evidence Based Practice. It took me by surprise that such subject exist. On my first day of class at Thames Valley University I have learned that EBP is about exploring a medical intervention through research of published research articles based on clinical trial conducted by various researchers and clinicians. The process starts by proposing a research question, and I chose to focus on Pain Management but I have notice that pharmacological management is too common. For such reason, I have decided to aim the attention of my research to Non-pharmacological Management such as Diversional Therapy. This kind of therapy is seldom used in the clinical setting because a lot of medicines are being discovered and used as often. As the process continues, I have learned how to properly critically appraise an article and notice its importance no matter how old it was and enhance my problem solving skills. Fur thermore, adjusting and somehow changing the learning method is a big alteration I have encounter as I need to spend a lot of time reading and making the paper. After all the amplitude I put into making this Folder of Evidence, I consider the entire course a success. I have learned so much of new things that somehow I ignored before. Mapping Grid: Module Learning Outcomes Evidence 1 Evidence 2 Evidence 3 Evidence 4 Identify and critically examine priorities for improving practice. Page 12 Para 1 [P] Asses the ability to identify evidence and critically appraise its value. Page 15 Para 2 [P] Critically analyze the change description and understanding about the nature of evidence in health care practice. Page 12 Para 1 [C] Page 18- 21 Para 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 [P] Evaluate the possibility and effectiveness of evidence for change in practice. Page 24- 25 Para 2, 5 [P] Learning Log: Study Day 1: 11th October 2010 Topic Understanding the Nature of Evidence Key Concepts/Issues Evidence Based Practice History Development Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Information Skills Development Classroom Activity AM Exploration of the Concept of Evidence Based Practice. PM Sources of Evidence Developing Search Skills Library Session (1) Brief Notes Evidence based practice is providing the best evidence of treatment to facilitate effective treatment/intervention. A discussion of what to be expected from folder of evidence as it highlights how the folder will be collated and how to set aims and objectives for FOE. Study Day 2: 25th October 2010 Topic Questioning Practice/Research Questions: Finding Evidence Key Concepts/Issues The relationship between questions and types of evidence; Questioning own practice explore types of research questions. Developing simple and structure search strategies Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Group Presentation Information Skills Development Classroom Activity AM Group Presentation: Evidence Based Practice Group Poster Presentation Concepts Definitions and Understandings Session Relationship Between Questions and Types of Evidence Descriptive and Relational Questions PM Writing Searchable Questions for Evidence Based Practice PICO Identifying Preliminary Search Terms Developing Search Skills Library Session (2) Brief Notes We discussed how to proposed a searchable question and how important it is. I formulated a topic based on my own interest and experience beforehand. Revision of question also was supervised and breakdown using PICO framework. Study Day 3: 8th November 2010 Topic Differentiating Between Research Paradigms. Key Concepts/Issues Evidence Based Practice Experimental Research Naturalistic Research Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Quiz Information Skills Development Classroom Activity AM Quiz Review Research Designs Discussion of Types of Questions (researchable and unsearchable questions). Group Work to Refine Final Practice Issue and Search Question Refine PICO Framework for Search PM Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Appraisal Tools, CASP, SIGN, AGREE Group Work Assessment and Discussion of Two Papers Retrieved Last Week. (Question, Design, Methods and Results). Brief Notes I have learn the different types of research designs that supports my research scheme for the 5 primary articles together with supporting documents that will be used in making EBP. This session also emphasizes the importance of PICO as this will help how to refine searches. Different appraisal tool was also discussed and its importance as this provide effective filter for the reliability and validity of published literature. Study Day 4: 29th November 2010 Topic Systematic Reviews/Meta-analysis: An Introduction Appraising Evidence Part 1. Key Concepts/Issues Systematic Reviews Developing Critical Appraisal Skills Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Group Presentation Individual Exercise Classroom Activity AM Group Presentation Features of Systematic Review Group Discussion How Does an SR Differ From a Traditional Review? Appraising a Systematic Review Individual Exercise and Group Discussion. PM Using Appraisal Tools Appraising of an RCT and a Qualitative Study Using CASP or an Alternative Appraisal Tool. Group Discussion Analysing the Appraisal Process and Effectiveness of the Appraisal Tool. Brief Notes A systematic review is a study that identifies, appraise, select ans synthesize a collection of research articles with relevance to each piece of work. Critically appraising a systematic review article excludes lesser quality studies to minimize error and bias in the findings. It Assess the validity of research by means of determining whether the methods used during the study can be trusted to provide a genuine, accurate account of the treatment being studied. Study Day 5: 6th December 2010 Topic Establishing the Quality of Evidence Key Concepts/Issues Making Judgements About the Quality of Evidence Synthesising Evidence Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion workshop Individual Exercise Classroom Activity AM GRADE How to Move from Evidence to Recommendations. Workshop- Grading Evidence PM Tutorials Independent Work or Further Electronic Searches. Brief Notes As I appraise each primary articles collected, a summary of critical appraisal of the 5 primary articles was made. This strategy helped me to make an apprehension toward the affirmation of each articles towards making the summative 3. Study Day 6 13th December 2010 Topic Implementing EBP Key Concepts/Issues Translating Evidence Into Practice Implementing EBP Guiding Principles for Implementing EBP Barriers to Implementing EBP Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Group Presentation Individual Exercise Classroom Activity AM Group discussion Identify Barriers to Implementing Evidence Base in Practice Identify Strategies to Implementation that Avoid/Overcome these Barriers. PM Students to work in pairs to devise a search strategy for use in one electronic database to identify an article that describes and evaluates the introduction of evidence based change in practice. Brief Notes Implementation has its various barriers to consider such as time, support, lack of knowledge, lack of motivation of the workers and too much research evidence. As a group activity we critique an implementation article as to determine the process of implementation of the studied intervention. Study Day 7 10th January 2011 Topic Evaluating EBP Key Concepts/Issues Evaluating Changes in Practice Application of a Framework for Evaluating Change. Final Module Evaluation Teaching/Learning Lecture Group Discussion Group Presentation Individual Exercise Classroom Activity Measurement for Improvement/Change Sustainability of Change Examine Effectiveness of Evaluation Strategies. Module Evaluation and Individual Tutorials Brief Notes It discussed about the evaluation process of a study and the use of guidelines in each step. Evaluation meant by achieving a research aims and objectives and most importantly if the study conducted able to answer the hypothesis, as this entails whether the study is effective or not. SUMMATIVE WORK Summative 1: Concept of Evidence-based Practice The challenge for best quality of care, combined with the need for recommended usage of resources has heightened the pressure on health care professionals to ensure that clinical procedures is based on sound evidence. Frequent change and advancement in treatments, an increasingly numbers of research information, and the increase of expectations from clients to provide the best care possible, place high demands on healthcare providers to maintain a service that is based on current best evidence. (Bennett and Bennett, 2000). Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a clear path to healthcare wherein health professionals use the best evidence possible, such as the most suitable information available, clinical decisions for individual patients. EBP values, enhances, and builds on clinical expertise, knowledge of disease process, and patho-physiology (McKibbon,1997). Evidence-based practice presume knowledge of and skills in literature searching, research methodologies apprehension , appraisal an d apprehension of research. It also requires healthcare professionals to have access, critique and coordinate literature study with clinical experience and clients aspect. In order to gain a greater interpretation about the nature of evidence in the context of health care, consideration needs to be given to the history of the evidence-based health care movement while the concept was originated in medicine, it has influenced a wide range of health professions (Trinder Reynolds, 2000). In addition, it is an approach to decision-making that has permeated all aspects of healthcare. Its characterize can be seen in many of the leading health systems and government health policies across the world. EBP model highlights the value of research as a source of information which is potentially less biased than other sources for informing practice, it also clearly acknowledges the importance of integrating this research with clinical expertise and clients perspectives (Sackett et al., 2000). Moreover, it involves complex and reliable decision-making based not on available evidence alone but also on patient characteristics, situations, and preferences. Changing practice is not easy to do therefore careful selection of the topic is very significant. For the benefit of the patient is of first importance when selecting a topic, however it can not be the main basis as to literary evidence is inadequate to figure what are the benefits. Researchers must also consider the time, level of consumption and other resources for the study. Research evidence is most frequently found in peer-reviewed journals as this is where results are first published and where enough detail on methodology exists to make informed judgements on the validity and clinical relevance of the findings (Bury Jerosch-Herold, 1998). Research using the strongest and most appropriate study design for the question being studied, will provide the best evidence. Summarizing the evidence is a vast intellectual endeavor according to Fitzpatrick (2007). Healthcare workers must be capable combining ideas and recommendations from an extent of references to make appropriate advices. Implementing a plan is consider challenging because standards and regulation of an organization can either help or ruin an EBP approach to care. Evaluation process involves short term and long term coverage to provide essential data. Word count= 503 Reference List: Bennett S Bennett J (2000) The process of evidence-based practice in occupational therapy: Informing clinical decisions. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 47 p171-180. McKibbon K (1997) Evidence-based practice. Bulletin of Medical Library Association. 86(3)p396-401 Trinder, L., Reynolds, S. (Eds). (2000). Evidence-Based Practice A critical appraisal. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Sackett D, Richardson W, Rosenberg W, Haynes R (2000).Evidence based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (2nd edn). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Bury T Jerosch-Herold C. (1998). Reading and critical appraisal of the literature. Evidencebased healthcare. A practical guide for therapists Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. p136-161 Fitzpatrick J (2007. Finding the research for evidence-based practice,part one: The development of EBP 103 (17) p.32-33 Summative 2: Critical discussion on formulating question using PICO There are many times that new information is required when contemplating clients in order to analyze clinical problems and make treatment resolutions, and these questions pertains to a specific client or groups of people. Questions usually arise concerning the effectiveness and choices of an intervention, how treatments are best implemented and whether there are any associated difficulties included (Bennett and Bennett, 2000).The question for this study is about the effectiveness of Diversional Activities as a form of pain management to paediatric clients. Pain management is the alleviation of agony and suffering of a patient with the use of Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological treatment or nursing intervention. Diversional therapy is a non-pharmacological approach and a client centered practice that recognizes the leisure and recreational experiences of an individual (Diversional Therapy Association of Australia,2008).Through the act of psychological and behavioral factors regard ing pain, complimentary medicine are significant in altering pain experiences. These interventions bears to minimize fear, worry, pain and heighten a clients bodily process. According to Bennett and Bennett (2000), when there is uncertainty, the need for information can be interchange into a clinical question. Clearly framing a question not only clarifies what to aim, but it can also facilitate the search for answers. Sackett et al. (1997) point out that the identification of congruent data for answering a particular clinical question may be facilitated by diving the question into components including: A client or a dilemma being considered, an intervention or indicator being considered, outcomes of interest you would like to measure or achieve and a comparison. PICO represents an acronym for Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome. These four components are the essential elements of the research question in EBP and of the construction of the question for the search of evidence (Santos et al. 2007). The PICO strategy can be used to compose several kinds of research analysis, originated from clinical practice, human and material resource management, the search of evidence assessment instruments, among others. The research question allows for the correct definition of which evidence is needed to solve the clinical research question, focuses on the research scope and avoids unnecessary searching (Fleming, 1999). Based on the clinical question formulated and utilization of PICO, a literature search strategy can then be formulated that includes search terms reflecting each component of the question. The next step in the evidence-based practice process is to search the literature for evidence that may assist in acknowledging the question posed. The literature search will be focused by the clinical question that has been identified with use of PICO, as well as other relevant information (Bennett and Bennett, 2000). While evidence for informing clinical decisions may come from various sources including clinical experience, education, textbooks, discussion amongst colleagues and from clients, evidence from well-performed research may be less prone to bias or to the tendency to believe what we want to believe ( Tickle-Degnen, 1999).The internet and the portals of open-access journals allow for accessibility to knowledge, keywords such as non-pharmacological, complimentary medicine and diversional therapy were used to search for the 5 primary articles to be used for this study. An article must be good and interesting, should be well written, and old articles are also considered. Moreo ver, comprises a body of knowledge in academic and scientific based from an original research. Word count= 548 Reference List: Bennett S and Bennett J (2000) The process of evidence-based practice in occupational therapy: Informing clinical decisions. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 47 p.171-180 Diversional Therapy Association of Australia(2008) what is diversional therapy?[online]. Available at:http://www.diversionaltherapy.org.au/Home/tabid/38/Default.aspx Flemming K.(1999) Critical appraisal 2: Searchable questions.NT Learn Curve 3(2) p. 6-7. Sackett DL, Straus S, Richardson S, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB (2000) Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. Churchill Livingstone. 2nd edition. Santos C, Pimenta C, Nobre M.(2007) The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidencesearch. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem maio-junho. 15(3) p.508-11. Tickle-Degnen,L. (1999). Organizing, evaluating and using evidence in occupational therapy practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy; 53 p.537 539. Summative 3: Synthesis of research findings. This part of work is the review of the 5 primary articles chosen for the topic effectiveness of diversional activities for pain management to pediatric clients. The articles will be analyzed by using CASP tool, examining each relevant findings and by compare and contrasting ideas of each authors, thus, resulting to further evaluation of such intervention in hospital and non-hospital setting for its efficacy. This research desires to have a thorough understanding of non-pharmacological intervention in managing pain to children that soon will complement pharmacological management by provide stronger evidence. Pain is a dreadful feeling and emotional experience related to injury or damage to children s body, it is usually caused by trauma, disease, medical procedure or surgery. Pain may affect children s appetite, sleeping patterns and lessen energy level hence disabling child to do things. Pediatric pain is complex and often difficult to assess, that is why effective pain management in children is a challenge to medical practitioners because there are many special considerations when providing treatment. On the other hand, non-pharmacological therapies or diversional activities are treatment that do not use medicines to decrease or control child s pain. They may convey comfort to the patient during a long standing condition or illness. Certain activities may help improve the child s state by making him/her more comfortable and relaxed. It involves methods such as teaching and leading your child through thinking exercises and other techniques. It can also be used before and after a child undergoes painful experience, such as medical procedure or surgery. Vessey et al. (1994) stated that, Distraction is the single most commonly used diversional activity among children. Fernandez (1986) stated that distraction refers to the direction of attention to a non-noxious event or stimulus in the immediate environment. When a patient worries too much about his/her pain causes more pain than what is really there. Vessey et al (1994) surveyed 100 children, aged 3 years to 12 years, majority are males (62%) to examine the effectiveness of Distraction method during venipuncture or needle prick, the child s memory may lead to stressful psychological responses, such as crying, and physical responses such as venous constriction during the procedures. It is important that in conducting a study the respondent s age, developmental level and prior hospital experience must be considered during the selection, Broome (1985). Furthermore, Researchers uses the Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale in evaluating children s perception of pain. Wong-baker pains scal e is know to be a reliable and valid device for children 3- 18 years of age in evaluating their pain,Wong and Baker (1988). In using distraction, the patients may paint, play with friends, watch TV and play with board games or video games and other novelty toys to help them relax and deflect their attention during the procedure since it provokes curiosity and require children to use their auditory, visual, tactile and /or kinesthetic senses. These activities may keep them from thinking about the pain. Weekes et al (1988) Distress is known to cancer patients for years during and after the completion of anti cancer treatments. According to National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), (2005) the role of imagination can play in a childs ability to cope with painful operations. The NICE concluded that there was a strong evidence for the use of hypnosis in alleviating chronic pain associated with cancer. Richardson et al (2006) mentioned that hypnosis is a method where the subject is guided by another to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experience such as perception, sensation, emotion, thought or behavior. It can be utilized in a variety of ways to cut down stress, acquire coping strategies and halt the experience of pain. Self-hypnosis tends to ease self management of symptoms, hence providing a sense of self-efficacy and control over pain and distress, however, it creates less therapeutic benefit compared to therapist- directed hypnosis. It is evident that patien ts who underwent hypnosis reported less anxiousness and pain while using direct and indirect forms of hypnosis, demonstrating leveled effectiveness. Though, there is some evidence that under hypnosis, girls exhibited more distress behavior compared to boys, Katz et al (1987). Richardson et al (2006) concluded that hypnosis has potential as a clinically valued intervention that could impart to the establishment of procedure- related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients. Oshikoya et al ( 2008) reported that complementary and alternative medicine has been advantageous for children by some parents, such benefits includes prevention of illness, maintenance of good health, relief of musculoskeletal pain, control of asthma symptoms, treatment of mild respiratory problems, relief of sickle cell anemia and enhancement of the immune system in cancer. 80% of the parents used alternative medicine to cure their children during the study, however, 7% discontinue the use of such practice because the symptoms of the illness come about in their children with exacerbation after their regular medications had been discontinued. Moreover, Kemper et al (2010) expressed that pediatric patients benefit from stress reduction by means of using complimentary medicines and techniques such as biofeedback which teaches the child to control and calm body s reactions when there is pain, it is one of the treatments researched most extensively for migraine, Allen (2004). Guided ima gery is used by letting the patient imagine that he/she is his/her favorite place, the patient will feel safe and relaxed and pain may be decrease. Relaxation and self-hypnosis methods that re mostly used for migraines and headache by asking the child to breathe slowly and deeply and let the patient imagine that his/her muscles are relaxing.. Holroyd and Drew (2006) stated that cognitive behavioral therapy has been utilized successfully to help manage headaches, depression, and anxiety, Lawler and Cameron (2006). This practice has proven effective in reducing migraine headaches, improves mood and cognitive function through an experiment. Also, Acupuncture and Massage can help both adults and pediatric patients who have chronic headache and can be provided by family members, which allows for more regular, inexpensive and favorable treatments. Salantera et al (1999) investigates 265 nurses about the knowledge and abilities of nurses towards pain management of pediatric clients. Health care practitioners such as nurses, are well placed to provide such supportive interventions in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. According to Ross et al (1991) Healthcare providers lack of knowledge and negative attitudes may lead to under medication and under treatment of pain. Nurses are close to the children the whole day and have more chance to use non-pharmacological pain management methods in their work. Clarke et al (1996) that education about pain was most inadequate in areas of non-pharmacological interventions to relieve pain, the difference between acute and chronic pain, and the anatomy and physiology of pain. Nurses knowledge differed according to their age, education, and place of work, and uses a fairly wide range of non-pharmacological pain alleviation methods, most of the time the nurse was in the activ e role and the child was passive, restricting the child to take an active part in their own pain comfort. Studies shows that children like to have some responsibility for their own care. Furthermore, Pederson and Harbaugh (1995) explicit that there are obstacles in terms of using non-pharmacological pain management in hospital setting and found to be that excess workload, lack of proper materials, lack of knowledge and skills, and not knowing the child were the most common problems nurses confronts. Some of them felt that they receive very brief education on non-pharmacological pain management, and 90% had no documented evidence of the use of any non-pharmacological modalities to relieve pain that will serve as nurse s guidelines. The nurses who thought they had good knowledge about non-pharmacological management got a lower score from the survey, nurses consider themselves knowledgeable in stress reduction but not in play therapy and hypnosis method. Effective pain management in ch ildren requires cognition of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. There are evidence found that nurse s characteristics, such as age, knowledge, experience, intuition, attitudes and beliefs, as well as nurses personal experience with pain, determines their implementation of pain interventions and knowledge about it. Nurses should be encouraged to actively seek new information and extend their training. More comparative, dismantling, constructive, and process oriented research strategy is required in the area of non-pharmacological pain management and different practice of pain alleviation should be generalized. Non- pharmacological approach has been found to be an effective adjunct method for the control of pain. A wide range of complementary and alternative medicine therapies are being used by children, including herbs and dietary supplements. Given the influence of psychological and behavioral factors on pain, non-pharmacological interventions are important in altering pain perception/behaviors. Diversional activities are intervention used for managing pain in both children and adult to reduce fear and, minimize distress and pain and increase a childs sense of control. For these techniques to be effective, it must be appropriate to patient s age and developmental abilities and must also be appealing to the recipient. There is still continues need to educate the medical community regarding the long term outcomes of pain control. Word count = 1514 Reference List: Allen KD (2004) Using biofeedback to make childhood headaches less of a pain. Pediatric Annual. 33: 241-245 Broome M (1985). The child in pain: A model for assessment and intervention. Critical care quarterly, 8: 47-55 Fernandez E (1986). A classification system of cognitive coping strategies for pain. Pain. 26: 141- 151. Holroyd KA, Drew JB (2006) Behavioral approaches to the treatment of migraine. Seminar Neurology. 26: 199- 207 Katz E, Kellerman J, Ellenberg L (1987) Hypnosis in the reduction of acute pain and distress in children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology; 12: 379- 394 Kemper K, Breuner C, (2010) Complimentary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine; Headaches. American academy of pediatrics, 31(2) p.17- 23 Lawler SP, Cameron LD (2006) A randomized, controlled trial of massage therapy as a treatment for migraine. Annual Behavioral Medicine. 32: p50-59 National Center for complimentary and alternative medicine, NIH (2007) Non-pharmacological pain management therapies for children. Available at http://nccma.nih.gov National Institute for clinical excellence (NICE) (2005) Service guidelines for improving outcomes in children and young people with cancer-second consultation. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/pdf/cacancer_2ndcons_manual.pdf Oshikoya K, Senbanjo I, Njokanma O, Soipe A ( 2008) Use of complimentary and alternative medicines for children with chronic health conditions in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC complimentary and alternative medicine 8 (66), p.1- 8 Pederson C, Harbaugh B. (1995) Nurses use of Non-pharmacological techniques with hospitalized children. Issues comprehensive pediatric Nursing; 18: 91- 109 Richardson J, Smith J, Pilkington K (2006) Hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients: A systematic review and methodology related to hypnosis interventions. Journal of Pain and symptom Management, 31 (1) p.70- 83 Ross RS, Bush JP, Crummette BD (1991) Factors affecting nurses decisions to administer PRN analgesic medication to children after surgery: an analog investigation. Journal of pediatric Psychology, 16: 151-167 Salantera S, Lauri S, Salmi T, Helenius H (1999) Nurses knowledge about pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management in children. Journal of Pain and symptom Management, 18 (4) p. 289- 299 Vessey J, Carlson K, McGill J (1994) Use of Distraction with Children during an acute pain experience. Nursing Research, 43(6) p. 369-372 Weeeks DP, Savedra MC (1988) Adolescent cancer: coping with treatment- related pain. Journal of Pediatric Nursing; 3: 318- 328. Wong D, Baker C (1988) Pain in children s comparison of assessment scales. Pediatric Nursing, 14: 19- 17.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Totally agree! Youth today are too easily obsess with all kind of thing, not only material thing but also idol, games, something that may attracted their attention. E. g. Ã¢â¬Å"American idolÃ¢â¬ A new generation has come of age, shaped by an unprecedented revolution in technology and dramatic events both at home and abroad. They are Generation Next, the cohort of young adults who have grown up with personal computers, cell phones and the Internet and are now taking their place in a world where the only constant is rapid change. Did you think anything about your dream, your health or your family; forget about computers, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just material things. WHAT IS OBSESSION? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a passionate feeling of fascination that often quickly evolves into domination. One who becomes obsessed does so out of a lack of self worth or self esteem. The person they are obsessed with is their object of self worth. They believe that this person, as their mate, will bring value to their life. Th is person also believes they have very little value, which adds to the need to have a mate with value. Even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s imagined. Materialism Many people these days seem to have their priorities out of line. They seem to put way too much emphasis on material things such as money, jewellery, toys, games, and other things that they think will bring happiness. They feel that these things will make them happier in life and will make them live better lives. There sure are a lot of problems with that theory. So why is it that so many people are stuck in the train of thought of materialism and in an obsession with material things? Here are some ideas. Many people are lonely and feel that this will keep them entertained and happy and make them feel better and fill the hole that they feel. They don't understand the importance of people in their lives so they try to fill the emptiness with materials thinking that it will make them happy and fill that gap. Another reason is that they just want to show off to people how much they have and own. They think that this will make them a better person because they own these things and that the more they have the better off they are. They believe that it's a race to see who can have the most things, because whoever has the most, is somehow the best. Something is clearly wrong there. Also, many people are insecure, and are obsessed with what other people think of them. They don't comprehend that they are who they want to be and who they become. They instead, rather believe that they are who other people claim that they are and therefore try to get as many cool things as possible, or beautiful things, to make other people wow at what they have. They feel like if other people think that what they have is awesome, then that must mean that they are an awesome person. It is tough for many people to get out of that train of thought. Finally, a lot of people do it without thinking. They are just caught in the wave of people who are materialistic. If they see something cool, they feel that they have to get it and don't completely think through whether or not they need it. Of course, this isn't the situation for all people. Some people just like the look of jewellery or like certain things or collecting items as a hobby. However, for a lot of people they are becoming lost in materialism and need to find the real things that make them happy and not the fake things. They need to locate the big ideas of life and find what truly makes them happiest. If you liked this article, a great book to read would be: The Gospel According to Larry. It is a book on materialism and a boy who tries to fight for a non-materialistic world movement. Trend toward something In this and other countries we tend to have an obsession with Ã¢â¬Å"youthÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â especially for females. We have grown into a truly youth obsessed society, and the cosmetic, food, beverage, and supplement offerings are proof of the incredible market there is for anti-aging beauty products. There's a glut of marketing that targets the beauty consumers, where the same products in many of these campaigns can do so much more for our health. Case in point: years ago there was an herbal product that claimed to treat and prevent gray hair. The product was originally formulated to lower cholesterol. During their research, they found that the product not only lowered cholesterol, but a considerable amount of test subjects lost their gray hair. What angle could they take? Health, vanity, health, vanity, health, vanityÃ¢â¬ ¦ not surprisingly, they focused their marketing campaign on the gray hair aspect, not on the cholesterol treatment. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t disagree with their logic. Now that I have a few gray hairs, I want to track down this product. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember what I ate for dinner last week, yet I can remember a beauty product from well over a decade ago. HowÃ¢â¬â¢s that for case in point? ***As an example, why if I send a bunch of teenage or youth to a village or a country without taking any entertainment gadget such as computer and even cell phones, they certainly will get bored. I love fashion but IÃ¢â¬â¢m not obsess with it Things are like this because people are corrupted by society. For many years, we are geared towards wanting the best things, the hottest spouses, and the shiniest sports carsÃ¢â¬âall so that we can have the bragging rights. By being able to boast about your wealth gives you power. Ultimately, power is what we all wantÃ¢â¬âbeing able to tell people what to do so that we get what we want, when we want it, and the way we want it. Material objects that cost a mother lode makes us feel good when have it in our possessionÃ¢â¬âa Louis Vuitton bag or a Lamburgini are so damn expensive that when we do have one to flaunt, we feel like we are at the top of the social hierarchy because vitrually no one else can have what you have. YOU can afford the expensive stuff, not Ã¢â¬Å"other people. In short, it's all about greed, pride, lust, and corruption. Clearly, the world is messed up. Reasons Why youth today tend to obsess with material things. Ã¢â¬Å"How long can you go with out using an electrical device? How long would you go without power? Does your bank account reflex your narcissistic materialism or need for survival. The answers to those questions would be a good gauge of whether Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ are ob sessed. Ã¢â¬ Good points nicshack. Our culture seems to be obsessed with the acquiring stuff and things. We have a very consumptive economy and ecology and we need to make some fundamental changes on a wide spread social and philosophical level or we might be in trouble as a species. Here's what it boils down to: because we live on this slightly tilted planet Earth, revolving a certain distance from the star Sol, life as we know it can exist and flourish and grow and change and fill this great big Universe with life and light and hope. We owe it to ourselves as a species, our children, and our ancestors; to nurture and live in harmony with our planet and fellow life. So you have to ask yourself, do you help life continue and grow? Or do you tear things apart and consume for the sake of consumption to try to fill a hole that should be filled with love and empathy? I know it sounds really heavy and pedantic, but we seriously need to wake up and evolve, break the cycles of destruction in all forms, and start building and learning. It all comes from self satisfaction. People live their lives feeling very unsatisfied, there are always desires. These desires are a very unskilful attempt at becoming happy. When people become obsessed with material things, it is out of fear Ã¢â¬â if they already possess the matter, they don't want to lose it because they feel without it, they will be unhappy. Other people desire and cling to money and what not because they feel that if they have it, they will be happy. But in both cases these people are driven by fear. Fear is heads on the coin, Desire is tails. Both complement each other. When people compare, they do this because they're attempting to please the self-identity that they carry of themselves, the idea they have of themselves, of who I am. If the I is better off than others, they feel happy. And if it isn't, they feel that they have to gain more material goods. The reason, primarily, is because we live in a capitalist society and is Ã¢â¬Ëtaught', from the moment we first enter society that the gaining of material wealth is our reason for being. The acquisition of status in our society comes from the striving for and gaining of wealth and the trappings associated with it. Once acquired, the structure or system we live within tells us that we require more to maintain our status and that, actually, we can never have enough. Karl Marx wrote about it in the Nineteenth Century. How many times a day are you bombarded with advertisements, telling you that you Ã¢â¬Ëneed' this, that or the other product? That if you don't have it, you're somehow missing out? While this may sound very obvious and simplistic, it's the stuff we're surrounded by all the time Ã¢â¬â constant messages informing us that our lives are in some way lacking or incomplete until/unless we have that house, this car, that phone, this brand, etc. We're so used to it that we don't question it. Zombie-like, we believe we Ã¢â¬Ëneed' these things Ã¢â¬â and that's what keeps everybody on the same treadmill and all the multi-million dollar companies in business. Ways to solve your Ã¢â¬Å"bad habitsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"It's like I have to buy things to validate myself. Ã¢â¬ It sounds to me like you get envious of other people's possessions because you feel inferior or inadequate, and something in you believes that if you just had what they have, you wouldn't feel inferior to them anymore. As far as how you can stop obsessing over material possessions, I think the root cause of your coveting other people's things comes from your own feelings of inferiority and low self-esteem. I think that by building up your own self-esteem, you will be able to love yourself more as a person, completely independent of material possessions. Then when you see other people with nice things, you won't feel like you need those nice things to be Ã¢â¬Å"as good asÃ¢â¬ that person, because you will know that you are a good person regardless of what you have. One of the best ways that a person can build self-esteem is by volunteering. Helping others actually helps you in ways that you would never anticipate until you do it. Try to find an organization that is close to your heart, and ask if they allow teenage volunteers to help out on weekends. Do you love animals? Volunteer at a pet rescue. Do you enjoy spending time with kids? Volunteer at a children's hospital or in a church nursery. Do you feel for the homeless? Volunteer at your local soup kitchen or homeless shelter. There are also national organizations like the Ronald McDonald House, United Way, The Salvation Army, etc. ho helps people in the community and are always looking for volunteers to keep them up and running. By doing something that helps others, you will help build up your own self-esteem. You begin to see yourself as someone who is important to others, who is able to do something that is valuable and helpful to society. I can tell you from experience that even doing something as mundane as cleaning out kennels makes you feel important when you t hink about the reason WHY you're cleaning those kennels Ã¢â¬â you're helping that rescue save the lives of more animals that would otherwise be put to death. You are saving lives by doing something as simple as cleaning a kennel or taking a dog on a walk, and that makes you a seriously awesome person. When you see yourself in that light Ã¢â¬â as someone who is important to others, who is helpful to their community, who can give to others in a positive way Ã¢â¬â you will really begin to internalize those feelings and feel good about yourself as a person. Also, being able to see others who have a lot less than you will really put those materialistic feelings into perspective. When you go out to a rural community and hand out shoes and coats to kids who are walking around barefoot because their family literally cannot afford to put shoes on their feet, it really makes you think twice about what's important in life. It can be a real good eye opener. I hope that helps! I don't think you're a brat, the fact that you said you don't want to be a brat and don't want to be shallow shows just how much you are not those things. Give yourself more credit, you already sound like a good person who is on the right track in life by trying to do the right thing. Other information that can be used It can seem, in the affluent parts of our globe, that to buy is our fortune. It could also be said that, if buying is good, more buying is better. Of course, weÃ¢â¬â¢re in the middle of an economic crisis and some folks might think we need moderation in interaction with the human-created marketplaceÃ¢â¬âthat we not treat it as some magically powerful entity that must be worshiped with human sacrifice. Are we completely obsessed with material possessions? Do they mean anything?. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a representative sample of the comments: Ã¢â¬Å"An iPhone to match your sneakers? Sneakers to match your vest? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I love clothes and dinners out with friends, and new shiny things but understand the completely vapid nature of these things. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They only mean something if you let it mean something. If it makes you happy then buy it. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Honestly, if you have the CASH to buy this stuff up front, go right ahead. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Few people lie on their death bed and talk about that car they should have bought or that purse that they were so close to buyingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As someone below pointed out it does have a huge impact on making the world as we know it go roundÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦yes we are obsessed, and its not a good thing. And yes, these things are important but shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be occupying our thoughts and efforts to the extent at which it is. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Its all one big contest and a race to the finish line. Its a shame most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop and look around them more often. Ã¢â¬ I was happy to see, at least, a range of responses in the normally affluent participants on the site. I was very sad about a few of them: Ã¢â¬Å"If it makes you happy then buy it. Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Honestly, if you have the CASH to buy this stuff up front, go right ahead. Ã¢â¬ HereÃ¢â¬â¢s where the idea of materialism brings up the idea of human sacrifice. Who suffers for the extraction of the raw materials needed to make all the fanciful things people buy? Who receives no help in their daily lives because they happen to live where the marketeers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t put their markets? Who sweats away their days making the toys of the affluent? Who can any longer ignore that We are One Human Family and what hurts one hurts all ? Spiritual Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"Whether as world-view or simple appetite, materialismÃ¢â¬â¢s effect is to leach out of human motivationÃ¢â¬âand even interestÃ¢â¬âthe spiritual impulses that distinguish the rational soul. For self-love,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËAbduÃ¢â¬â¢l-Baha has said, Ã¢â¬Ëis kneaded into the very clay of man, and it is not possible that, without any hope of a substantial reward, he should neglect his own present material good. Ã¢â¬â¢ In the absence of conviction about the spiritual nature of reality and the fulfilment it alone offers, it is not surprising to find at the very heart of the current crisis of civilization a cult of individualism that increasingly admits of no restraint and that elevates acquisition and personal advancement to the status of major cultural values. The resulting atomization of society has marked a new stage in the process of disintegration about which the writings of Shoghi Effendi speak so urgently. Ã¢â¬Å"To accept willingly the rupture of one after another strand of the moral fabric that guides and disciplines individual life in any social system, is a self-defeating approach to reality. If leaders of thought were to be candid in their assessment of the evidence readily available, it is here that one would find the root cause of such apparently unrelated problems as the pollution of the environment, economic dislocation, ethnic violence, spreading public apathy, the massive increase in crime, and epidemics that ravage whole populations. However important the application of legal, sociological or technological expertise to such issues undoubtedly is, it would be unrealistic to imagine that efforts of this kind will produce any significant recovery without a fundamental change of moral consciousness and behaviour. Ã¢â¬
Friday, January 10, 2020
From the devastating earthquakes in Haiti, the educational institutions were destroyed. It will take time to rebuild and reestablish the country. This horrible disaster has not only shaken the Haitian nation, but the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Education is at the core of HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery and is the key to HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s development,Ã¢â¬ said Director-General Irina Bokova of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. The younger generation will become the future leaders of Haiti. They will be responsible for planning, rebuilding, and reestablishing the country. Although classes are not in session, many Haitian students are laying and repairing their nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. Marc Lacey describes how students are putting their education to work, in the New York Times article, Education Was Also Leveled by Quake in Haiti. He writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Future doctors are pitching in at field hospitals and helping arrange a major vaccination campaign. Psychology students are talking with displaced people about how they are holding up. Ms. Julme, who studied communication, managed to get a job at the United Nations radio station, although she focuses on music, not news, to get her mind, and the minds of her listeners, off of all the awful things that have occurred.Ã¢â¬ Students from various fields and career programs are contributing to the relief effort. They are not employing their skills to earn a high salary or to be promoted. They are simply volunteering to help their friends, family, and neighbors recover and rebuild. The ultimate goal of education is to improve society. Martin Luther King Jr. said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦education has a two-fold function to perform in the life of man and in society: the one is utility and the other is culture. Education must enable a man to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing facility the legitimate goals of his life.Ã¢â¬ Amidst the wreckage and ruined buildings, people make new goals. They may be simply to survive. Many are worried about their future and their families. Those who can and know how to help can step forward. They can teach others how to help each other. There is the old saying that it is better to teach a man to fish than to give him a fish. This simple declaration is true. Those who are educated, no matter what field or skill, can help society improve. We learn in the classroom not to just land a good job, but to help humanity. The skills we learn in school are life saving skills. You may ask yourself how your skills or your career could help you if you were in their situation. You may think to yourself howÃ you could help others. Whatever your skills or talents, they are needed. It takes artists to find and create beauty. It takes engineers to prepare and build safe structures. It takes police officers to maintain peace. Education is helping Haiti recover. The Haitian society will be rebuilt. It is our duty wherever we live to develop our skills and use them to benefit humanity. Education is not just the means to advance our careers. It enables us to live and work together as a nation and as a world. How can your education help humanity?